Here are few close-up details:
Unfortunately, I haven't quite solved my binding issues. The structure of the book is actually similar to a child's board book, which I believe, in bookbinding parlance, is called a drum leaf binding.
Because mine was not done in the proper order, it is a bit wonky, but "live and learn", as they say. Thanks to Mo Crow for the link, and for all the other instructions and suggestions.
When I got all of the pages glued together, I discovered that the spine of the original book was only a tiny bit too small. So, since the spine doesn't serve a structural function in this case (the end pages are glued onto the covers, not the spine), I think I may be able to do a cosmetic fix by just sewing on a strip of something(?) to hold the edges together and make it look better.
And then, I'll need to do something with the back cover, so stay tuned for more disasters and discoveries!